星期三, 9月 24, 2008

Marketing



Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchange that satisfies individual and organizational goals.

There are four main philosophies
  1. Production orientation
  2. Sales orientation
  3. Market orientation
  4. Societal marketing orientation
Production orientation means to do what organization is good at. Therefore, it focus on its own capabilites to create products in great quality. It is very difficult to match capabilities with market needs.

Sales orientation is to focus on its own products. The priority is based on the sales volume. The scope is bounded by its product lines which are normally subsets of market needs.

Market orientation focus on the needs in the market. The whole company is driven by market needs. However, some market needs do harm to long term benefits of individuals or society.

Societal marketing orientation means that firms would not provide any goods, products and services which do harm to long term benefits of individuals or society.

From these 4 stages of marketing, we can find the philosophy keep evolved and being more mature. All marketeers would take care of ethics eventually.


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